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Berlin Environmental Atlas

02.11 Water Conservation Districts and Groundwater Use (Edition 1992)

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Withdrawal Amounts

Amounts withdrawn by the Berlin Public Water Companies have risen ever since the beginning of public water supplies. A clear reduction of removal amounts occurred after World War II. West Berlin removal amounts steadied in the mid-70's. In East Berlin there was a continual increase until 1989 (cf. Fig. 4).

Figure 4
Fig. 4: Groundwater Withdrawal Amounts of the Berlin Public Water Companies 1960-1990
Figures are for withdrawals of raw water. East Berlin waterworks (including Stolpe waterworks) refer to the calendar year. West Berlin waterworks refer to the water economy year. The sum for 1973 includes 8.2 million m³ for filling Teufelsee lake in Grunewald. The figure for 1990 includes 5.7 million m³ used in the Jungfernheide waterworks mainly for restoration of groundwater, and not for the drinking water supply.

[Statistical base of Figure 4 is also available as Excel-File (MS-Excel is required).]

The Berlin Public Water Companies removed 358.4 million m³ of raw water from groundwater in 1989, including Stolpe waterworks. Adding the 41.6 million m³ removed by private sector water supply plants (17.3 million m³ in East Berlin) and the 12.7 million m³ for groundwater retention at construction sites, yields a sum total of 412.7 million m³ withdrawn from groundwater for Berlin. In 1990, the groundwater amounts removed by the Berlin Public Water Companies sank almost 10%, down to 324 million m³ (cf. Fig. 4). This reduction is due to the drastically reduced withdrawals of East Berlin waterworks, including Stolpe waterworks.

The approximately 320 larger private sector water supply plants removed 42 million m³ of groundwater in 1989. This water was used as drinking, operating, and cooling water, and for plants and green areas. The approximately 60 plants which also remove for drinking water are specially monitored to maintain a water quality fit for human consumption. The largest plants in East Berlin each removed about 1.2 million m³ in 1989. In West Berlin the largest remover withdrew about 2.8 million m³.

The map depicts some private sector water supply plants whose permitted withdrawal amounts are zero, but which do remove groundwater. A few of these plants have received a permit in the meantime (the information in the map is from 1989). Other operators fall under the no-permit-required use, since their removals are minimal. (§ 33 WHG resp. § 38 BWG). No permit was required under Allied law.

Amounts removed by West Berlin private sector water supply plants are dropping (cf. Fig. 5). There is a tendency to close such plants, primarily for economic reasons, and to take water from the public network. There are no comparable figures available for East Berlin.

Figure 5
Fig. 5: Groundwater Withdrawal Amounts According to Use in West Berlin from 1963-1990
Since 1987, construction groundwater retention for restoration and redevelopment measures have been included. The figures are for raw water withdrawals and refer to the water economy year.

[Statistical base of Figure 5 is also available as Excel-File (MS-Excel is required).]

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